TABE Language Practice Test: Level A

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Question 1

Read the sentence.

Statements on the internet come from people about politics that are biased and are not supported by facts.

Which revision of the sentence is most appropriate and clear?

A
The internet is where biased people make statements that are not supported by facts about politics.
B
People often make statements about politics on the internet that are biased and not supported by facts.
C
Biased and not supported by facts, politics are discussed by people on the internet.
D
Politics is a topic that people on the internet make statements on that are biased and not supported by facts.
Question 1 Explanation: 
Answer choice (B) is the correct answer because it is the clearest and easiest to read sentence. It is organized in a way that makes sense and is grammatically correct. The other answer choices each leaves something unclear or ambiguous to the reader.
Question 2

Read the sentences.

The computer should be able to tell us what class Maria is in right now. _____ _____ job to create every student’s schedule, so we can use it to figure out where Maria is.

Which words best complete the sentence?

A
Its; it’s
B
It’s; its
C
It’s; it’s
D
Its; its
Question 2 Explanation: 
Answer choice (B) is correct because the sentence should start with a contraction of a pronoun and “is” (“It’s”), then lead into a possessive pronoun (its). If we were going to write this sentence without pronouns, it would read, “Creating a schedule is the computer’s job.” Answer choices (A), (C), and (D) use the right words, but in the wrong place and/or the wrong order.
Question 3

Which of the sentences correctly uses a colon to introduce quoted words?

A
This is what she says to me whenever I and feeling depressed: “Everything will work out in the end.”
B
“Everything will work out in the end”: she tells me whenever I am feeling depressed.
C
Something that she says to me whenever I get depressed is: “Everything will work out in the end.”
D
She is always giving me advice whenever I get depressed, like: “Everything will work out in the end.”
Question 3 Explanation: 
Answer choice (A) is correct because the colon in that sentence is used to properly introduce the information in quotations. In each of the other sentences, a comma would be the appropriate punctuation to use.
Question 4

Read the sentences.

The only thing that I could do to assuage their concerns was to give them a free appetizer. Once I offered them that, they weren’t as upset about how long their food was taking.

What does the word assuage mean as used in the first sentence?

A
Ignore
B
Combat
C
Worsen
D
Ease
Question 4 Explanation: 
The second sentence infers that whatever the narrator did in the first sentence made things better. This eliminates answer choices (A) and (C). Answer choice (B) might be tempting, but it is way too aggressive and negative to fit in the sentence.
Question 5

Read the sentences.

The only time Maria had ever gotten angry at him was when he disrespected her family. He disrespected her family by refusing to take off his shoes. They were also disrespected when he refused to make eye contact with them as they talked.

Which of the following effectively combines the sentences into one sentence using appropriate parallel structure?

A
When he disrespected her family, Maria got angry with him for not taking off his shoes or making eye contact with them.
B
The only time Maria had ever gotten angry with him was when he disrespected her family by refusing to remove his shoes and not making eye contact when they spoke.
C
The only time Maria had ever gotten angry with him was when he disrespected her family by not removing his shoes and making eye contact when they spoke.
D
Maria’s family was disrespected when he refused to take off his shoes or make eye contact; this was when Maria got angry.
Question 5 Explanation: 
Answer choice (B) is correct because it’s the only answer choice that remains accurate to the original sentences and makes sense grammatically. Answer choice (C) might be tempting, but the way the sentence is worded, it seems like “he” disrespected the family by “making eye contact with the family when they spoke,” instead of by not making eye contact, as is stated in the original sentences.
Question 6

Read Kaylin’s essay. Then answer the following questions.

Compared to most of our country’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Paine is essentially unknown. In fact, there are many Americans who have never even heard of him. Paine was born in 1737. He was the son of a corseter – a tailor specializing in corsets and other undergarments – and grew up in rural Thetford, England. He became a famous writer and revolutionary figure when he was older. Paine didn’t find his true calling until he moved to the British colonies in America, and worked as a young man as a corseter, sailor, and minister.

Paine first gained notoriety as the editor of Pennsylvania Magazine and, as political turmoil engulfed the colonies, he became more prominent. In 1776, Paine published a book called Common Sense. The book’s popularity spread like wildfire; soon there were 200,000 copies in circulation. Once the war began, Paine published a series of pamphlets called The Crisis. These; in the midst of a bloody war, helped keep up the morale of the troops. Thomas Paine is also credited with conceiving the name “The United States of America.”

Thomas Paine was an extremely talented writer; Thomas Jefferson and John Adams drew heavily on his work when drafting the Declaration of Independence. Later in life, Paine wrote other, highly controversial works. He was even exiled from England and imprisoned in France for his writings. In 1796, Paine did his part to inspire what would become Social Security. He suggested a system of social insurance for the young and the elderly in his last great work, Agrarian Justice.
 

Read the sentence from the essay.

Paine didn’t find his true calling until he moved to the British colonies in America, and worked as a young man as a corseter, sailor, and minister.

Which revision of the sentence is most appropriate and clear?

A
As a young man, Paine worked as a corseter, sailor, and minister, but found his true calling when he moved to the British colonies in America.
B
Paine’s true calling wasn’t as a corseter, which was one of his jobs as a young man along with sailor and minister; he didn’t find his calling until he moved to the British colonies in America.
C
As a corseter, a sailor, and a minister, Paine wasn’t fulfilled, and he found his true calling when he moved to the British colonies in America.
D
The young man, Paine, didn’t work at his true calling when he worked as a corseter, a sailor, and a minister, but rather he found his true calling when he moved to the British colonies in America.
Question 6 Explanation: 
Answer choice (A) simplifies the sentence, while still providing all the same information as the original sentence in a clear and efficient way. Answer choice (C) might be tempting, but it adds the fact that Paine was not fulfilled when he was in Britain. While that may be true, we can’t draw that conclusion just from what Kaylin has included in her essay. Answer choices (B) and (D) make the sentence more confusing and/or do not provide the same information as the original sentence.
Question 7
Compared to most of our country’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Paine is essentially unknown. In fact, there are many Americans who have never even heard of him. Paine was born in 1737. He was the son of a corseter – a tailor specializing in corsets and other undergarments – and grew up in rural Thetford, England. He became a famous writer and revolutionary figure when he was older. Paine didn’t find his true calling until he moved to the British colonies in America, and worked as a young man as a corseter, sailor, and minister.

Paine first gained notoriety as the editor of Pennsylvania Magazine and, as political turmoil engulfed the colonies, he became more prominent. In 1776, Paine published a book called Common Sense. The book’s popularity spread like wildfire; soon there were 200,000 copies in circulation. Once the war began, Paine published a series of pamphlets called The Crisis. These; in the midst of a bloody war, helped keep up the morale of the troops. Thomas Paine is also credited with conceiving the name “The United States of America.”

Thomas Paine was an extremely talented writer; Thomas Jefferson and John Adams drew heavily on his work when drafting the Declaration of Independence. Later in life, Paine wrote other, highly controversial works. He was even exiled from England and imprisoned in France for his writings. In 1796, Paine did his part to inspire what would become Social Security. He suggested a system of social insurance for the young and the elderly in his last great work, Agrarian Justice.
 

Which of these sentences should Kaylin delete from her essay?

A
“Thomas Paine was an extremely talented writer; Thomas Jefferson and John Adams drew heavily on his work when drafting the Declaration of Independence.”
B
“Compared to most of our country’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Paine is essentially unknown.”
C
“Paine first gained notoriety as the editor of Pennsylvania Magazine and, as political turmoil engulfed the colonies, he became more prominent.”
D
“He became a famous writer and revolutionary figure when he was older.”
Question 7 Explanation: 
While answer choice (D) contains information that is relevant to the essay, this sentence briefly mentions his later life at the exact time the writer is writing about Paine’s early life. It is out of place in the essay. Each of the other answer choices includes a sentence that is organized properly and serves a valid purpose in the essay.
Question 8
Compared to most of our country’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Paine is essentially unknown. In fact, there are many Americans who have never even heard of him. Paine was born in 1737. He was the son of a corseter – a tailor specializing in corsets and other undergarments – and grew up in rural Thetford, England. He became a famous writer and revolutionary figure when he was older. Paine didn’t find his true calling until he moved to the British colonies in America, and worked as a young man as a corseter, sailor, and minister.

Paine first gained notoriety as the editor of Pennsylvania Magazine and, as political turmoil engulfed the colonies, he became more prominent. In 1776, Paine published a book called Common Sense. The book’s popularity spread like wildfire; soon there were 200,000 copies in circulation. Once the war began, Paine published a series of pamphlets called The Crisis. These; in the midst of a bloody war, helped keep up the morale of the troops. Thomas Paine is also credited with conceiving the name “The United States of America.”

Thomas Paine was an extremely talented writer; Thomas Jefferson and John Adams drew heavily on his work when drafting the Declaration of Independence. Later in life, Paine wrote other, highly controversial works. He was even exiled from England and imprisoned in France for his writings. In 1796, Paine did his part to inspire what would become Social Security. He suggested a system of social insurance for the young and the elderly in his last great work, Agrarian Justice.
 

What does the word notoriety as it is used in the first sentence of the second paragraph?

A
Criticism
B
Respect
C
Fame
D
A publisher
Question 8 Explanation: 
Based on the rest of the paragraph, Thomas Paine became more well-known as he gained notoriety, which means that answer choice (C) is correct. Answer choice (B) might be tempting, but the word the author uses in the end of the sentence containing notoriety is prominent. This means that notoriety her is just about becoming more well-known, not more respected. Answer choices (A) and (D) are off-the-mark.
Question 9
Compared to most of our country’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Paine is essentially unknown. In fact, there are many Americans who have never even heard of him. Paine was born in 1737. He was the son of a corseter – a tailor specializing in corsets and other undergarments – and grew up in rural Thetford, England. He became a famous writer and revolutionary figure when he was older. Paine didn’t find his true calling until he moved to the British colonies in America, and worked as a young man as a corseter, sailor, and minister.

Paine first gained notoriety as the editor of Pennsylvania Magazine and, as political turmoil engulfed the colonies, he became more prominent. In 1776, Paine published a book called Common Sense. The book’s popularity spread like wildfire; soon there were 200,000 copies in circulation. Once the war began, Paine published a series of pamphlets called The Crisis. These; in the midst of a bloody war, helped keep up the morale of the troops. Thomas Paine is also credited with conceiving the name “The United States of America.”

Thomas Paine was an extremely talented writer; Thomas Jefferson and John Adams drew heavily on his work when drafting the Declaration of Independence. Later in life, Paine wrote other, highly controversial works. He was even exiled from England and imprisoned in France for his writings. In 1796, Paine did his part to inspire what would become Social Security. He suggested a system of social insurance for the young and the elderly in his last great work, Agrarian Justice.
 

Which of the following sentences from the passage is punctuated incorrectly?

A
“He suggested a system of social insurance for the young and the elderly in his last great work, Agrarian Justice.”
B
“In 1776, Paine published a book called Common Sense.”
C
“He was the son of a corseter – a tailor specializing in corsets and other undergarments – and grew up in rural Thetford, England.”
D
“These; in the midst of a bloody war, helped keep up the morale of the troops.”
Question 9 Explanation: 
Answer choice (D) is correct because Kaylin uses a semicolon incorrectly in the sentence, and should replace it with a comma. Answer choice (C) might be tempting because Kaylin uses dashes, but they are used correctly. Answer choices (A) and (B) similarly use punctuation accurately and appropriately.
Question 10

Read Cynthia’s essay. Then answer the following questions.

For a fairly harmless animal, bats have a bad reputation. Either they are bloodsucking vampires trying to turn us into and undead army, and they are a source of fear used by an eccentric billionaire super hero. In other words, we find them frightening. Why is that?

People have always feared the unknown, the other, and bats are no exception. While bats are mammals like us, their behavior I so unfamiliar to us that it’s scary. First of all, bats are blind and nocturnal. As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around them. They produce a sound and measure the sound as it returns to them in order to locate things, which is exactly the way our modern radar works. Secondly, they sleep while hanging upside down off of a perch, which can be just freaky to see. The reason bats sleep like this is because it helps them more easily transition into flying quickly. This is the next reason people don’t like them. Bats need momentum to fly, and they sleep upside down so they can quickly plummet towards the ground to gain speed in order to fly. The third reason people are scared of bats is because they seem to dive quickly down in the night. This is just how they have to start flying, but to suddenly see a bat careening down at you is extremely frightening.

Bats are often innocent animals, though. In fact, most bats eat small insects, which means if there are bats in your yard on a warm summer night, they could clear the air of bugs for you. Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies. But, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you. Considering how rare it is to see a vampire bat and how rare it would be for that vampire bat to bite you, it’s surprising that bats have gotten such a bad reputation. If bats want to clear the insects out of my yard, they’re welcome to all my summer parties.
 

Read the sentence from the essay.

Either they are bloodsucking vampires trying to turn us into and undead army, and they are a source of fear used by an eccentric billionaire super hero.

Which of the words should the writer use in place of “and” to improve the sentence?

A
or
B
but
C
so
D
for
Question 10 Explanation: 
Answer choice (A) is correct because the sentence begins with “either,” so the two ideas in the sentence need to be linked by the conjunction “or.” This is the only answer choice that suggests an “either/or” relationship between the two ideas.
Question 11
For a fairly harmless animal, bats have a bad reputation. Either they are bloodsucking vampires trying to turn us into and undead army, and they are a source of fear used by an eccentric billionaire super hero. In other words, we find them frightening. Why is that?

People have always feared the unknown, the other, and bats are no exception. While bats are mammals like us, their behavior I so unfamiliar to us that it’s scary. First of all, bats are blind and nocturnal. As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around them. They produce a sound and measure the sound as it returns to them in order to locate things, which is exactly the way our modern radar works. Secondly, they sleep while hanging upside down off of a perch, which can be just freaky to see. The reason bats sleep like this is because it helps them more easily transition into flying quickly. This is the next reason people don’t like them. Bats need momentum to fly, and they sleep upside down so they can quickly plummet towards the ground to gain speed in order to fly. The third reason people are scared of bats is because they seem to dive quickly down in the night. This is just how they have to start flying, but to suddenly see a bat careening down at you is extremely frightening.

Bats are often innocent animals, though. In fact, most bats eat small insects, which means if there are bats in your yard on a warm summer night, they could clear the air of bugs for you. Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies. But, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you. Considering how rare it is to see a vampire bat and how rare it would be for that vampire bat to bite you, it’s surprising that bats have gotten such a bad reputation. If bats want to clear the insects out of my yard, they’re welcome to all my summer parties.
 

Read the sentence from the essay.

As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around them.

Which revision of the sentence is most appropriate and clear?

A
Bats used a form of echolocation, as everyone knows, to see the world around them.
B
As everyone knows, bats use a form of echolocation to see the world around them.
C
As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around him.
D
Everyone knows bats use a form of echolocation to see the world around them.
Question 11 Explanation: 
Answer choice (B) is correct because the essay is written in present tense, so the verb “use” needs to also be in present tense. Answer choice (D) fixes this verb tense problem, but rearranges the sentence so that it no longer maintains the same meaning.
Question 12
For a fairly harmless animal, bats have a bad reputation. Either they are bloodsucking vampires trying to turn us into and undead army, and they are a source of fear used by an eccentric billionaire super hero. In other words, we find them frightening. Why is that?

People have always feared the unknown, the other, and bats are no exception. While bats are mammals like us, their behavior I so unfamiliar to us that it’s scary. First of all, bats are blind and nocturnal. As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around them. They produce a sound and measure the sound as it returns to them in order to locate things, which is exactly the way our modern radar works. Secondly, they sleep while hanging upside down off of a perch, which can be just freaky to see. The reason bats sleep like this is because it helps them more easily transition into flying quickly. This is the next reason people don’t like them. Bats need momentum to fly, and they sleep upside down so they can quickly plummet towards the ground to gain speed in order to fly. The third reason people are scared of bats is because they seem to dive quickly down in the night. This is just how they have to start flying, but to suddenly see a bat careening down at you is extremely frightening.

Bats are often innocent animals, though. In fact, most bats eat small insects, which means if there are bats in your yard on a warm summer night, they could clear the air of bugs for you. Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies. But, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you. Considering how rare it is to see a vampire bat and how rare it would be for that vampire bat to bite you, it’s surprising that bats have gotten such a bad reputation. If bats want to clear the insects out of my yard, they’re welcome to all my summer parties.
 

Which of the following sentences should Cynthia delete from her essay?

A
Secondly, they sleep while hanging upside down off of a perch, which can be just freaky to see.
B
The reason bats sleep like this is because it helps them more easily transition into flying quickly.
C
This is the next reason people don’t like them.
D
Bats need momentum to fly, and they sleep upside down so they can quickly plummet towards the ground to gain speed in order to fly.
Question 12 Explanation: 
Answer choice (C) is correct because it is trying to transition to the next idea before the writer has finished discussing her initial idea. Unless the writer begins the next idea immediately after this sentence, it’s unnecessary.
Question 13
For a fairly harmless animal, bats have a bad reputation. Either they are bloodsucking vampires trying to turn us into and undead army, and they are a source of fear used by an eccentric billionaire super hero. In other words, we find them frightening. Why is that?

People have always feared the unknown, the other, and bats are no exception. While bats are mammals like us, their behavior I so unfamiliar to us that it’s scary. First of all, bats are blind and nocturnal. As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around them. They produce a sound and measure the sound as it returns to them in order to locate things, which is exactly the way our modern radar works. Secondly, they sleep while hanging upside down off of a perch, which can be just freaky to see. The reason bats sleep like this is because it helps them more easily transition into flying quickly. This is the next reason people don’t like them. Bats need momentum to fly, and they sleep upside down so they can quickly plummet towards the ground to gain speed in order to fly. The third reason people are scared of bats is because they seem to dive quickly down in the night. This is just how they have to start flying, but to suddenly see a bat careening down at you is extremely frightening.

Bats are often innocent animals, though. In fact, most bats eat small insects, which means if there are bats in your yard on a warm summer night, they could clear the air of bugs for you. Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies. But, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you. Considering how rare it is to see a vampire bat and how rare it would be for that vampire bat to bite you, it’s surprising that bats have gotten such a bad reputation. If bats want to clear the insects out of my yard, they’re welcome to all my summer parties.
 

Read the sentences from the essay.

Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies. But, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you.

Which of these effectively combines the sentences into one sentence?

A
Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies, but, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you.
B
Vampire bats only live in South America and carry rabies, but they are very rare and won’t bite humans, only small animals.
C
While vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies, they are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you.
D
Vampire bats are very rare in North America, and although they do exist and their bites could transmit rabies, they are more likely to go after small animals than humans.
Question 13 Explanation: 
Answer choice (D) is the only option that maintains the meaning of the original sentences while creating a streamlined and fluid sentence. Answer choice (C) almost does this, but by the end of the sentences, it has become a run-on.
Question 14
For a fairly harmless animal, bats have a bad reputation. Either they are bloodsucking vampires trying to turn us into and undead army, and they are a source of fear used by an eccentric billionaire super hero. In other words, we find them frightening. Why is that?

People have always feared the unknown, the other, and bats are no exception. While bats are mammals like us, their behavior I so unfamiliar to us that it’s scary. First of all, bats are blind and nocturnal. As everyone knows, bats used a form of echolocation to see the world around them. They produce a sound and measure the sound as it returns to them in order to locate things, which is exactly the way our modern radar works. Secondly, they sleep while hanging upside down off of a perch, which can be just freaky to see. The reason bats sleep like this is because it helps them more easily transition into flying quickly. This is the next reason people don’t like them. Bats need momentum to fly, and they sleep upside down so they can quickly plummet towards the ground to gain speed in order to fly. The third reason people are scared of bats is because they seem to dive quickly down in the night. This is just how they have to start flying, but to suddenly see a bat careening down at you is extremely frightening.

Bats are often innocent animals, though. In fact, most bats eat small insects, which means if there are bats in your yard on a warm summer night, they could clear the air of bugs for you. Vampire bats do exist, and their bites can be scary since they can carry rabies. But, vampire bats are very rare, mostly seen in South America, and are more likely to attack small animals than you. Considering how rare it is to see a vampire bat and how rare it would be for that vampire bat to bite you, it’s surprising that bats have gotten such a bad reputation. If bats want to clear the insects out of my yard, they’re welcome to all my summer parties.
 

Cynthia is considering replacing the final sentence of the essay with a better sentence. Which of the following sentences best concludes the essay while maintaining Cynthia’s tone and purpose?

A
While there are some bats that are dangerous, the majority of them, especially in North America, are harmless and nothing to be afraid of.
B
If a vampire bat bites you, though, get to the hospital as soon as possible because rabies can be lethal.
C
Next time you see a bat diving in your yard, give it a hug instead of trying to kill it.
D
We rely on bats to help us out, so why should we be afraid of them?
Question 14 Explanation: 
Answer choice (A) is correct because it is the sentence that is the most accurate to Cynthia’s tone and purpose. Answer choice (B) might be true, but it’s a diversion from Cynthia’s overall purpose. Answer choices (C) and (D) reflect Cynthia’s purpose, but break away from her tone.
Question 15

Which of the following sentences is punctuated correctly?

A
The answer to the riddle, still unknown was what motivated John to keep working.
B
The answer to the riddle, still unknown, was what motivated John to keep working.
C
The answer, to the riddle still unknown, was what motivated John to keep working.
D
The answer to the riddle still unknown was what motivated John to keep working.
Question 15 Explanation: 
The phrase "still unknown" in this sentence is called an appositive. That means it follows a noun or noun phrase to add further description or clarification. Here, the appositive is providing "bonus information" that the answer is still not known. Appositives must be enclosed by a comma on each side, making (B) the correct answer.
Question 16

Read the following sentences.

Using ice on her injured knee only seemed to exacerbate the problem. The joint became stiff and it hurt even more to put any pressure on her leg.

What is the meaning of exacerbate in the first sentence?

A
Worsen
B
Irritate
C
Undo
D
Elaborate
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Using context clues, we can tell that the knee has ice on it because it is hurt. The second sentence says the ice made it hurt "even more," meaning the ice made the problem worse. "Undo" is the opposite of what the ice is doing. Though "irritate" and "elaborate" may seem like good options, neither are quite right when referring to a problem. A problem cannot get irritated or elaborated.
Question 17

Read the following sentences.

Charlie wasn’t sure how the lamentable news would effect his son. He knew the boy was working on managing his emotions, but this new development might just spark a meltdown.

There is a mistake in the first sentence. Which of the following provides the best correction?

A
Charlie weren’t sure how the lamentable news would effect his son.
B
Charlie wasn’t sure how the lamentable news would affect his son.
C
Charlie couldn’t be sure about the lamentable news with effect to Charlie’s son.
D
Charlie wasn’t sure what affect the lamentable news would have on his son.
Question 17 Explanation: 
Answer (B) is correct because the sentence used "effect" instead of "affect." The sentence needed a verb, affect, and was instead using the noun effect. Answer (A) introduces a new mistake. Answers (C) and (D) do not correct the mistake but instead make the sentence more complicated.
Question 18

Read the following sentences.

Charlie wasn’t sure how the lamentable news would effect his son. He knew the boy was working on managing his emotions, but this new development might just spark a meltdown.

What is the meaning of the word lamentable in the first sentence?

A
irrational
B
joyful
C
sorrowful
D
bemusing
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Since the news may cause a meltdown, we can use context clues to determine that lamentable has a negative connotation, which eliminates answers (B) and (D). Answer (A) does not make sense because news would not be described as irrational; only a reaction to news could be irrational.
Question 19

Rebecca is writing an essay for her environmental science course. Read the beginning of her essay and then answer the following questions.

Plastic has been a hot topic of discussion for the past decade, both for the general public and for the scientists and activists most concerned about our planet. At the top of the list of concerns is single-use plastic, which is just used for packaging or convenience and then immediately thrown away to become a part of a landfill.

Awareness campaigns and activities such as “plastic-free July” have brought attention to how much plastic we consume that barely serves a function before being wasted, but ultimately, fun participatory events for the most concerned members of the public are not going to solve our problem. To see how large the plastic epidemic is, we need to look at its smallest and most dangerous form; microplastic.

Microplastics are pieces of plastic that are five millimeters or smaller in size, and they are what plastics break down into in our oceans and natural environment. Items such as water bottles, food containers, polyester clothing fibers and more break down into these microplastics and pollute our waterways when they don’t make it to the landfill because they are littered or not properly secured from animals and natural elements. These microplastics then become ingested by the seafood and land animals that we consume and enter our bodies. Studies have found microplastics in human lungs and even human blood. Plastics are so pervasive that they are now a part of our biological makeup.
 

Read the sentence from the essay.

Items such as water bottles, food containers, polyester clothing fibers and more break down into these microplastics and pollute our waterways when they don’t make it to the landfill because they are littered or not properly secured from animals and natural elements.

Which revision of the sentence is most appropriate and clear?

A
Items that don’t make it to the landfill because they are littered or not properly secured from animals and natural elements such as water bottles, food containers, clothing fibers and more break down into these microplastics and pollute our waterways.
B
When water bottles, food containers, polyester clothing fibers or other plastic items are littered or not properly disposed, they can break down into microplastics and pollute our waterways.
C
Plastics that don’t get recycled or placed in a landfill become pollutants.
D
Items that can break down into microplastics and pollute waterways when they don’t make it to the landfill because they are littered or not properly secured from animals and natural elements are water bottles, food containers, polyester clothing fibers and more.
Question 19 Explanation: 
Rebecca's current sentence has a lot of clauses that are difficult to follow. Answer (B) does the best job at simplifying these clauses while retaining the author's original meaning. Answer (C) reduces the statement and loses important information. Answers (A) and (D) rearrange the clauses in a more complicated way that makes the statement even more challenging to understand.
Question 20

Rebecca is writing an essay for her environmental science course. Read the beginning of her essay and then answer the following questions.

Plastic has been a hot topic of discussion for the past decade, both for the general public and for the scientists and activists most concerned about our planet. At the top of the list of concerns is single-use plastic, which is just used for packaging or convenience and then immediately thrown away to become a part of a landfill.

Awareness campaigns and activities such as “plastic-free July” have brought attention to how much plastic we consume that barely serves a function before being wasted, but ultimately, fun participatory events for the most concerned members of the public are not going to solve our problem. To see how large the plastic epidemic is, we need to look at its smallest and most dangerous form; microplastic.

Microplastics are pieces of plastic that are five millimeters or smaller in size, and they are what plastics break down into in our oceans and natural environment. Items such as water bottles, food containers, polyester clothing fibers and more break down into these microplastics and pollute our waterways when they don’t make it to the landfill because they are littered or not properly secured from animals and natural elements. These microplastics then become ingested by the seafood and land animals that we consume and enter our bodies. Studies have found microplastics in human lungs and even human blood. Plastics are so pervasive that they are now a part of our biological makeup.
 

Which of the following sentences from the passage is punctuated incorrectly?

A
Awareness campaigns and activities such as “plastic-free July” have brought attention to how much plastic we consume that barely serves a function before being wasted, but ultimately, fun participatory events for the most concerned members of the public are not going to solve our problem.
B
Plastic has been a hot topic of discussion for the past decade, both for the general public and for the scientists and activists most concerned about our planet.
C
Plastics are so pervasive that they are now a part of our biological makeup.
D
To see how large the plastic epidemic is, we need to look at its smallest and most dangerous form; microplastic.
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The semicolon (;) should be a colon (:).
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